The Farming Practices Survey (FPS) was commissioned by MCC to evaluate the impact of Water-to-Market (WtM) activities, particularly farmer training, on rural farmers in Armenia. Fielded by a consortium of AREG, an Armenia-based NGO, and Jen Consult, the FPS is a longitudinal survey of farming households interviewed at three points in time. FPS1 was conducted in 2007, before farmer training began. A second round was conducted one year after training began. Data from the second round is not included in this package. FPS3, the final round, was conducted three years after training began. This public-use file includes de-identified data from respondents to FPS3 and FPS1.
Households were selected for FPS1 interviews based on their likelihood of participating in WtM training, as assessed by mayors using criteria provided by the survey team. This process was used so that the surveyed households would include a high proportion of WtM participants. Each round of the FPS asked each household about their cropping patterns, irrigation and agricultural practices, crop yields, agricultural revenues and costs, other household expenditures, household employment, and other sources of household income.
Units of Analysis
The units of analysis are individuals, families/households, and communities.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
There is one questionnaire for the FPS3. The FPS3 is based on the questionnaire used in FPS1 and the Integrated Survey of Living Standards (ISLS) implemented annually by the National Statistical Service of Armenia (NSS). The FPS3 is published in Armenian and English. It is intended to be administered to the person in the household with the most knowledge of farming activities on the household's land holdings. The FPS3 and FPS1 are provided as external resources.
The FPS3 was designed with guidance from MCA-Armenia, MCC, and Mathematica. Relative to FPS1, FPS3 has some minor changes in structure and an additional section on agricultural credit. In addition to questions regarding agricultural credit, the FPS3 asks about various demographic and socioeconomic characteristics for each member of the household, including sex, age, relationship, education level, and occupation. At the household level, the FPS3 asks the respondent about agricultural trainings, land holdings, agricultural practices, production of major crops, agricultural sales and revenues, income, and expenses.
Rural areas in the 10 Armenian marzes excepting Yerevan.
Agriculture & Rural Development
On-farm water management, High-value agriculture, Irrigation, Agriculture, Rural, Farm investment
Producers and Sponsors
Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.
Millennium Challenge Corporation
Metadata Produced By
Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.
Independent Evaluator & Survey Firm
Version 1.3 (Nov 2013). This version uses an updated MCC metadata template.
Metadata ID Number
MCC Compact and Program
Compact or Threshold
The MCC compact with Armenia was a five-year investment (2006-2011) of $177.6 million in two projects: irrigated agriculture and rural road rehabilitation. The Irrigated Agriculture Project included two major activities, irrigation infrastructure and water-to-market (WTM). The WTM activity consisted of four components: on-farm water management and high-value agriculture farmer training; post-harvest, processing and marketing enterprise training; access to credit; and institutional strengthening of water users associations. The $14 million on-farm water management (OFWM) and high-value agriculture (HVA) farmer training component is the subject of an independent impact evaluation released by MCC in October 2012. This component represents 8 percent of the total compact.
Agriculture and Irrigation (Ag & Irr)
The Irrigated Agriculture Project was designed to address the physical, managerial and financial investments needed to generate sustainable increases in rural incomes through irrigated agriculture. The WTM activity was designed to complement the infrastructure investment by training farmers on new technologies and shifting production to higher-value crop production. The program logic assumed that trained farmers would benefit from improved water resources, improved marketing opportunities and access to credit for investment. Combined with training, these aimed to provide sufficient incentives for farmers to invest in more profitable and cost-effective agricultural activities. The OFWM and HVA components focused on training for new technologies and improved on-farm water management to support a shift to higher-value crop production. The assumption was that trained farmers would transition to profitable commercial farming. This was expected to result in additional income from newly irrigated land, increase in high value-added crop cultivation, improved access to new markets, higher yields, and lower production costs. Inputs: MCC funds farmer training design and implementation. Outputs: Increase in farmer knowledge of on-farm water management (OFWM) and high-value agriculture (HVA) techniques. Immediate Outcomes: Incresases in farm productivity and income. Intermediate Outcomes: Increases in farm productivity and income. Ultimate Impacts: Increases in farmer household income and reduction in rural poverty.